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56                               SHIPPING PRACTICE

provisions, etc., are charged on measurement, and heavy
cargoes pay freight on their weight.

An example of this may be given: a case measuring
5ft, x 4ft. X 3ft.,produces60cub.ft.,constituting!^tons
measurement at 40 cub. ft. The actual weight of the case,
however, may be i ton if filled with light goods or 2 tons if
filled with heavy goods. In the first example there is excess
of half a ton measurement over the weight, and the cargo
becomes chargeable at measurement rate, whilst in the

latter case there is an excess of half a ton weight, and the
cargo therefore being rated at weight.

For measuring cargo, exterior measurements are taken,
fractions of an inch being counted as an inch on the first
measurement, and dropped on the second measurement; for
example, a case measuring 2 ft. 4!in. x 3ft. 6Jin. x 6 ft.
81 in,, would be cubed as 2 ft. 5 in. X 3 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 9 in.

Cargo of uneven shape which loses space in stowing is
chargeable on the actual space occupied, including the lost
space. All space lost in such circumstances is termed
broken stowage, a good example of which may be given in
the accompanying sketch of a shipment of barrels.

Here broken stowage occurs in the spaces shaded. The
shipowner, therefore, is entitled to charge lor space used,
and may calculate same as if the diameter of the barrel is the
same at the top and bottom as the centre.

Freight on bill of lading shipments is usually charged
according to tariff rates, which are fixed by the different